3000 BCE Cunieform in Mesopotamia, Hieroglyphs in Egypt
1800-1500 Alphabet used in Sinai
1400-1200 Ugaritic script of 30 characters used in Syria
XIII Clay inscription at Sarepta, Lebanon
XII Canticle of Deborah
XII-XI Inscriptions in Palestine using 'BN', rather than aramaic 'BR', for son
1200 Phoenician Alphabet
800 Phoenician Alphabet adopted in Greece
770 Phoenician Alphabet adopted by Etruscans, becomes Latin Alphabet; same Phoenician Alphabet will become runes across northern Europe
VIII-VII Celtic invasion of Britain
621 King Josiah, the Prophetess Huldah, and "the book of the law" found in the Temple (2 Kings 22-23, 2 Chronicles 34.14-35.19)
538 First Return from Babylonian Exile
458 Ezra returns from Babylonian with "book of the law of Moses" (Ezra 7.6-10.14, Nehemiah 8-10)
V-IV Returns from Exile and canonization of Bible
III-II Septuagint in Greek
II Samaritans separate from Judaism, retaining Pentateuch in Hebrew
II BC- I AD DEAD SEA SCROLLS
70 Destruction of Jerusalem by the Emperors Titus and Vespasian
160 First Latin translation of Bible
253 †Origen, who studied the Hebrew and Greek Bibles
263-340 Eusebius of Caesarea
II Syrian translations from Hebrew Bible, Peshitta
III Coptic translations of Septuagint
312 Constantine raises Cross
IV Ireland begins to be Christian
IV CODEX BOBIENSIS (Turin, Biblioteca Naz. G. VIII ); Vetus Latina Bible, written in Africa, preserved in the monastery of Bobbio, believed to have been carried on his person by St Columbanus
IV CODEX VATICANUS
327 †Empress Helena
337 †Emperor Constantine
348 Cyril of Jerusalem's Catechetical Lectures
356 Domitilla's Catacomb with St Petronilla and capsa full of Bible scrolls, Rome
339-397 St Ambrose of Milan
342-420 St Jerome
350-380 Italian Latin Bible, related to Ambrose, model for Jerome's Vulgate
371 † Eusebius of Vercelli, translator of Eusebius of Caesarea
311-383 Bishop Wulfila who invents Gothic alphabet and translates Bible into that language
354-430 St Augustine
381 Jerome arrives in Rome
381-384 Egeria's Pilgrimages to Palestine, Sinai, Constantinople
384 Jerome urged by Pope Damasus to translate the Bible from the Greek
385 Paula and Eustochium's Pilgrimages to the Holy Places
385-461? St Patrick of Ireland
386-389 Jerome's GALLICANUM translation of the Psalter from Origen's Hexapla
389-392 Jerome's final translation of the Psalter direct from the Hebrew text (the HEBRAICUM or Iuxta Hebraeos). Not accepted as official Psalter Vulgate in the West. Accepted version, Jerome's earlier GALLICANUM
IV-V CODEX SINAITICUS
405-406 Jerome, with aid of Paula and Eustochium, translates Hebrew and Greek Bibles into the Latin Vulgate
409 Rome taken by Goths, Roman rule ends in Britain
422-432 Pope Celestine, emphasises Rome
432 St Patrick in Ireland
432-440Pope Sixtus emphasising Rome
440-450 Tomb of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, with Gospel Cupboard
540-547 St Benedict
440-461 Pope Leo the Great (Sermon 82, on Rome's role; Feast of St Peter and Paul, 29 June 441)
450-523 St Brigit of Ireland
464 Peshitta, British Library Ms. Add. 14,425
489 Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths, invades Italy
490-583 Cassiodorus of Vivarium, with Bible Cupboard
493 Theodoric consolidates power legally, becoming Governor for Emperor of East
495-579/580 St Finnian of Moville, Ireland, perhaps identical with St Frediano of Lucca
VI St Frediano, Irish Bishop of Lucca, from Ulster, mentioned by Gregory the Great, perhaps identical with St Finnian
496 Christmas Day, Coronation of Clovis
V CODEX ALEXANDRINUS
V Armenian translation of Origen's Hexapla
V VERONENSIS, CORBIENSIS, VINDOBONENSIS, copying Italian Latin Bible of 350-380, related to Ambrose, model for Jerome's Vulgate; CLAROMONTANUS
V Pagan Anglo-Saxon invasion of Celtic Christian Britain
V Ravenna mosaic with Four Gospels on altar
V-VI Jerome's Hebraicum Psalter present in Ireland
521-597 St Colum Cille or Columba, born, Donegal
524 Boethius writes Consolation of Philosophy, mentions Ivory Book Cupboards
540-604 St Gregory the Great
561 St Columba copies St Finnian's Gospel or Psalter, perhaps in the CATHACH 'Battler', which passes to O'Donnell family in Battle of Cul Dremhe.
562-565 Columba, having already founded Durrow in Ireland, travels to Scotland as 'a pilgrim for Christ', with twelve companions, founds Iona, converts northern Picts, southern Picts having been converted by St Ninian to Christianity
570-632 Mohammad and the KORAN
579-580 †St Finnian who founded Moville, and who brought back Jerome's Vulgate Bible from Rome
583 †Cassiodorus, CODEX GRANDIOR (Vetus Latina), NOVEM CODICES. At same period Wulfila's Gothic Bible was again written out in the CODEX ARGENTEUS, in gold and silver upon purple parchment, these Bibles associated with the court of Theodoric of Ravenna
590 St Columbanus leaves Ireland
596 Pope Gregory the Great sends St Augustine to Canterbury
597, 9 June †St Columba, while transcribing a Psalter. Augustine and his companions reach England
VI CAMBRIDGE CORPUS CHRISTI GOSPELS, from Italy, perhaps brought by Augustine of Canterbury
VI Durham Cathedral, flyleaf of Italian Latin Bible, model for CODEX AMIATINUS script
VI-VII CODEX TURONENSIS S. GOTIANI, earliest surviving Vulgate
VII Irish Gospel USSERIANUS PRIMUS
600 Springmount Bog Tablets with Gallicanum Psalms. Irish prophecy that Bridget is another Mary, the Lord's mother
601 Gregory sends pallium to Augustine
605 †Pope Gregory the Great
613 St Columbanus founds Bobbio
615 23 November †St Columbanus, at Bobbio
630 More probable date of CATHACH?
632 Death of Muhammad
634 King Oswald's Victory at Heavenfield, raises Cross, in imitation of Constantine
635 King Oswald requests that St Aidan found Lindisfarne from Iona, St Chad's birth
642 King Oswald killed
651 †St Aidan. St Chad had been his student.
658-739 St Willibrord
663 Council of Whitby at which Abbess Hilda presides
669 St Chad, Bishop of Lichfield. Archbishop Theodore, Abbot Hadrian and Benedict Biscop accopanying them arrive in England from Rome
670s Benedict Biscop introduces building of churches and working in stone to Northumbria
672 †St Chad
674 Wearmouth founded by Benedict Biscop, later stonemasons and glaziers brought over from France to build its church dedicated to St Peter, then Jarrow founded with its church dedicated to St Paul, Ceolfrith its Abbot, Eosterwine becoming Abbot of Wearmouth.
673-735 Bede, History of the English Church and People
675-754 St Boniface
679-680 Anglo-Saxon monks, Prior of Wearmouth, Ceolfrith, and Benedict Biscop, in Rome, buy Cassiodorus' abandoned library, including CODEX GRANDIOR from Vivarium, for Northumbria.
680 †St Hilda of Whitby (Streasnaeschalch), Caedmon's 'Hymn of Creation'.
681 Jarrow founded by Benedict Biscop, Ceolfrith its Abbot, Bede accompanying him.
683 Eosterwine, Abbot of Wearmouth.
680-691 ANTIPHONARY OF BANGOR
684 St Cuthbert, Bishop of Hexham
685 St Cuthbert, Bishop of Lindisfarne. Ruthwell lost to the Anglo-Saxons. Abbot Ceolfrith founds church of St Paul at Jarrow, 23 April, likely placing CODEX GRANDIOR in it
687 20 March †St Cuthbert. Saint buried with his own STONEYHURST GOSPEL of St John either at this date or in 698
690 †Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury
698 20 March Translation of St Cuthbert. St Cuthbert's Coffin carved with similar images to LINDISFARNE GOSPELS, BOOK OF KELLS . Eadfrith, Bishop of Lindisfarne, writes LINDISFARNE GOSPELS in honour of St Cuthbert. He appears to have consulted CODEX GRANDIOR at Wearmouth-Jarrow, using an Italian Bible text and replicating the Cassiodorus/ Ezra portrait in the Evangelist Matthew. St Willibrord founds Echternach. ECHTERNACH GOSPELS, DURHAM GOSPELS by same scribe.
700 BOOK OF DURROW. Irish Vulgate Bible. Carpet pages. Translation of St Chad by Bishop Hedda to new church dedicated to St Peter.
700-786 St Willibald, travelled to Holy Land, then spent time as a monk at Monte Cassino, a nun at Heidenheim writing down his pilgrimage account in Hodoeporicon, became bishop in Germany, his sister Walburga also a foundress. Their Anglo-Saxon father had died in Lucca, is venerated there as a saint.
703 Adamnan of Iona presents Arculf's Pilgrimage to King Alcfrith of Northumbria
VII-VIII CODEX AMIATINUS, CODEX OTTOBONIANUS, next earliest surviving Vulgates. CODEX AMIATINUS uses Jerome's Hebraicum Psalter, is oldest complete Latin Jerome Bible
VII-VIII MULLING GOSPELS Irish Pocket Gospels
710 Abbot Ceolfrith sends architects for building a church in stone to Nechtan, King of the Picts, and letter on Roman dating of Easter and tonsure. Jarrow, Ruthwell, Bewcastle share 'inhabited vine' motif in sculpture, possible date for RUTHWELL, BEWCASTLE CROSSES
713 Whitby 'Life of St Gregory'
716 †Abbot Ceolfrith journeys from Wearmouth Jarrow, 5 June, dying at Langres, 25 September, on the way to Rome, while bringing with him the CODEX AMIATINUS. He had purchased an the Vetus Latina of Cassiodorus, the CODEX GRANDIOR, in Rome, he had three copies made but of the Jerome translation, one for Wearmouth, one for Jarrow, and the third, the AMIATINUS , for the Pope. It includes the HEBRAICUM Psalter, rather than the GALLICANUM . Hwaetberht elected Abbot of Wearmouth-Jarrow. Egbert converts the monks of Iona and its province to the Roman dating of Easter and tonsure
721 Ethelwold has LINDISFARNE GOSPELS bound by Bilfrith the Anchorite
c.730 LICHFIELD GOSPELS (ST CHAD'S GOSPEL), HEREFORD GOSPELS, COTTON VESPASIAN PSALTER
731 Bede completes History of the English Church and People
c. 740 King Bulan of Khazars and his people convert to Judaism, according to their King Joseph's Letter, c. 960
744 St Boniface founds Fulda
750 POEMS OF BLATHMAC, ST GALL FOUR GOSPELS
774 Langobards control Tuscany from France
777 Saracens in Spain request Charlemagne's aid
779 Charlemagne's Count Roland from Brittany killed by Basques at Roncesvalles
781-802 Hygebeald, Bishop of Lindisfarne, scribe of VATICAN BARBERINI GOSPELS
790-793 Alcuin leaves Charlemagne's court for three years in England, stays at Wearmouth-Jarrow, perhaps sees Ceolfrith's remaining pandects and CODEX GRANDIOR, or one of these at court of Offa, to be given by him to Worcester Cathedral.
793 First Viking raid on Lindisfarne
794, 799 Beatus of Liebana denounces Archbishop Alipandus of Toledo of the Adoptionist heresey to Carolingian Councils, writes Commentary on the Apocalypse
VIII RUTHWELL CROSS , 'Dream of the Rood'?
VIII (before 754) CADMUG GOSPELS Irish Pocket Gospels
VIII CODEX PALATINO-VATICANUS Irish Catena on Psalms
VIII CODEX AUREUS, made at Canterbury using Northumbro-Irish models, captured by Vikings, ransomed back, now again in Sweden
VIII BOOK OF CERNE
VIII-XI Five generations of Asher's family, himself and his descendants, like Moshè ben Asher and Aharon ben Moshè ben Asher, in the Tiberiad, perfect the pointing and masorah of the Hebrew Bible text
793 First Viking raid on Lindisfarne
795-800 'PSALTER OF CHARLEMAGNE'
797 Charlemagne's embassy to Haroun al-Raschid
797-801 Jerome's Vulgate revised by Alcuin, Abbot of Tours
IX CAROLINUS, PAULINUS, VALLLICELLIANUS BIBLES
c. 800 BOOK OF KELLS. Vulgate Bible. Perhaps made on Iona, perhaps at Kells after Iona sacked by the Vikings in 806 when 68 of the community were killed.
800 Christmas Day, Coronation of Charlemagne
801 Haroun al-Raschid's gifts reach Charlemagne, brought by the Jew, Isaac, including the elephant Abu'l-'Abbas
806 Iona sacked by Vikings
809 BOOK OF ARMAGH
810 Jerome's Vulgate revised by Theodulf Bishop of Orléans
811 Death of Charlemagne's elephant, Abu'l-'Abbas, Haroun al Raschid's gift to Emperor
813 St James' relics discovered at Compostella
820 St Methodius born
Before 822 MAC REGOL GOSPELS (CODEX RUSHWORTHIANUS)
826/7 St Cyril born
829-876 Irish St Donatus of Fiesole
830s Dungal retires to Bobbio from teaching at Pavia, bequeathes his books to monastery library
c.830 LICHFIELD GOSPELS in Wales
847? St Petersburg, Institute for Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences. D 62.
Hebrew Later Prophets, with large and small masorah, added later according to Babylonian terminology.
IXth century (847? from date of sale), from Karasubasar Synagague, Crimea.
850 GREEK PSALTER of Sedulius Scottus. Charter of Irish St Donatus, Bishop of Fiesole, granting church dedicated to St Bridget in city of Piacenza to Bobbio
851 Moslem Emir of Millet asked Emperor for skilled learned men to explain the essence of Christianity, Constantine/Cyril was chosen as one of deputies
858 Cyril and Methodius sent to the land of Khazars (mostly Jews and Moslems) northeast of the Black Sea who asked for learned men as well.
860 Cyril and Methodius studying Old Hebrew in Crimea on return journey
862 Prince Rostislav of Great Moravia asks Constantinople for missionaries, to develop the liturgical practice in Slavic language which was native for Moravians.
867 Pope Nicholas I invites Cyril and Methodius to Rome to explain their conflict with the German archbishop of Salzburg and bishop of Passau, who claimed control of the same Slavic territory and who wanted to enforce the exclusive use of the Latin liturgy.
868 Constantine and Methodius arrive in Rome in 868, where the new pope, Adrian II, takes their side, formally authorizing the use of the Slavic liturgy. Slavic Gospel deposited at Santa Maria Maggiore.
869, 14 February †Constantine, having become a monk under the name of Cyril
871-889 Aldorman Eadfrith and his wife Werburg ransom back CODEX AUREUS from Vikings for Christ Church, Canterbury
875 Lindisfarne moves to Durham with relics of St Cuthbert and LINDISFARNE GOSPELS
885 †St Methodius
886 Petrus abbot of San Salvatore, Monte Amiata
c. 893 Cyrillic formed from Glagolitic in Bulgaria
894-895? CODEX PROPHETARUM CAIRENSIS , Profeti con i segni delle vocali e degli accenti e con la masorah magna et parva. Copied by Moshè ben Asher. Taken from Jerusalem at the Crusade in 1099, given to the Synagogue in Cairo. Carpet pages.
VIII LICHFIELD GOSPELS (ST CHAD'S GOSPEL), HEREFORD GOSPELS
VIII-IX CODEX USSERIANUS SECUNDUS
VIII-IX CODEX CAVENSIS
VIII-IX STOWE ST JOHN, DIMMA GOSPELS, IRISH GOSPELS Irish Pocket Gospels
IX CORNISH GOSPELS, MACDURNAN GOSPELS Pocket Gospels
VIII-X Masorah of Tiberian Ben Asher family, similar to Arabic pronunciation system for Koran and for Christian Bibles in Syrian.
IX By IX there are 280 surviving Vulgate Bible manuscripts; of 9,000 surviving manuscripts, 15% are Bibles, 15% are biblical commentaries
IX Viking invasions of England and Ireland
IX Vulgate CODEX CAROLINUS, CODEX PAULINUS, CODEX VALLICELLIANUS.
IX-X Earliest surviving Armenian Bibles
IX-X THE BOOK OF DEER
X Colophon to LINDISFARNE GOSPELS by scribe of Anglo-Saxon interlinear gloss, Aldred, narrates its history
900 Irish prophecy of St Bridget's Kildare, “This site is open to heaven ...; and today a girl for whom it has been prepared by God will come to us like Mary”
916 PROPHETARUM POSTERIORUM CODEX BABYLONICUS PETROPOLITANUS , from Chuput-Kale` Genizah, Crimea, now in St Petersburg. Profeti posteriori con i segni delle vocali e degli accenti secondo il sistema (sopralineare) babilonese e con la masorah magna et parva.
920 COTTON VITTELLIUS PSALTER
c. 929Pentateuco con i segni delle vocali e degli accenti e con la masorah magna et parva, St Petersburg. Same copyist as CODEX ALEPENSIS . Carpet pages.
929 CODEX ALEPENSIS, Jerusalem. Bibbia incompleta con i segni delle vocali e degli accenti e con la masorah magna et parva.
929 St Petersburg, Firkovich Hebr. II.B.17, from Chuput-Kale` Genizah, Crimea.
957 St Vladimir's grandmother, St Olga, baptized Christian in Constantinople, became Regent in Kiev
949-973 LINDISFARNE GOSPELS signed by Bishops Winsige and Kinsige of Lichfield
X VERCELLI MANUSCRIPT with 'Dream of the Rood'
975 Gerona Apocalypse, first surviving Beatus of Liebana illumianted Commentary manuscript
987 St Vladimir, King of Kiev, converts Rus to Christianity, selecting Orthodoxy over Judaism, Catholicism, Islam.
988-989 St Petersburg, Firkovich Hebr. II.B.39, from Jerusalem, 'Damascus Keter'
1000 Iceland's Althing decreed that Iceland be Christian. Emperor Otto III, Pentecost Sunday, gazes on exumed body of Charlemagne at Aachen,
1035 CODEX AMIATINUS known to be at Abbey of San Salvatore, Monte Amiata
X-XI Canon of Hebrew Bible with masorah of the Tiberian Ben Asher family established. Earlier copies eliminated.
XI CODEX LENINGRADENSIS St Petersburg, Firkovich Bibl. II.B.19a. Bibbia completa con i segni delle vocali e degli accenti e con la masorah magna et parva. Carpet pages. From Damascus
1025 EDINBURGH PSALTER
1056 Episcopal See of Skalholt, Iceland
1061 Norman Conquest of Messina, Sicily
1066 Norman Conquest at Battle of Hastings
1077 Dedication of Bayeux Cathedral
1091 Norman Count Roger I, Ruler of Sicily, Apulia and Calabria
1095 Council of Clermont proclaims Crusade
1099 Norman Conquest of Jerusalem
1104 St Cuthbert's Gospel of St John, STONYHURST GOSPELS. with original binding found in his coffin at Durham translation
1105 CODEX REUCHLINIANUS, European Hebrew Bible
XII CODEX SEVERI Midrash compilation made in Narbonne copied from an ancient Sefer Torah in the Roman Synagogue of the Emperor Alexander Severus (222-235)
1130 Norman Kingdom of Sicily, Apulia and Calabria, with crowning and anointing of Roger II in Palermo, Christmas Day, by Pope Anacletus II
1137 Peter the Deacon uses Egeria's Itinerarium manuscript
1138 GOSPELS OF MAEL BRIGTE. Cordova-1204 Cairo, Maimonides, who confirms Canon, ben Asher family's pointing and masorah, writing Misneh Torah in Egypt 1170-80, perhaps using CODEX ALEPENSIS
1141 Hildegard von Bingen, Scivias
1233 Monte Senario, Founding of Servites' Order of St Mary by Seven Servite Founders
1248 Seville conquered by Christians from Moslems
1250 Primo Popolo, first Guelph Republic of Florence
1251 Death of Ghibelline Emperor Frederic II
1252 Alfonso el Sabio proclaimed King after the death of his father Fernando II, el Rey Santo
1254, 20 April Brunetto Latino, ' Ser Burnectus Bonacorsi Latinus', Notary, draws up the peace treaty with Siena naming Jacopo Rusticcuci (Inferno VI.79-80, XVI.34-45) and Hugo Spini as Florence's ambassadors. Treaty signed and witnessed in the Church of Santa Reparata, ' ad sonum campanarum comunis ', to the sound of the bells of Florence, in the presence of the Anziani, the Senators, and all other officials of the city and people of Florence, then, 11 June, used as basis for Siena's signing it at Montereggione. 25 August Brunetto Latino draws another peace treaty, between the Guelphs of Arezzo and Florence, signed on that day - to the customary ringing of bells - in the Church of San Lorenzo. 10 October Peace Treaty with Pisa, signed 'Et ego Burnectus Bonacursi Latini notarius et nunc Ancianorum scriba et comunis '. Giovanni Villani notes 1254 called by the Florentines the victorious year because of their diplomacy and miliary prowess.
1255, 6 May Guido Guerra's sale of his castle of Romena, 6 May 1255, involving Brunetto Latino and Farinata degli Uberti.
1257 Pisa treating with Alfonso el Sabio, proposing his election as emperor, in return for his support against Lucca, Florence and Genoa; April Alfonso elected Emperor at Frankfurt, in opposition to the already elected Richard of Cornwall. 8 May peace pact with Faenza, naming ' Burnecto notario fil. Bonacursi Latini sindico comunis et popule Florentie '. 20, 22 June Florentine and Aretine canons arrange the payment of the decima for the Pope's war against King Manfred of Sicily in Apulia, Brunetto signing both documents in Capitolo Fiorentino. Florence and Lucca form alliance against Pisa because Pisa had nominated Alfonso el Sabio of Castile as Roman Emperor and was against Florence. September Peace signed in Santa Reparata between Florence and Pisa. Next, Ghibelline Siena and Genoa ally with Manfred, Frederick II's bastard heir, against Guelph Florence, Genoa even offering Manfred the imperial throne
1258 14 October Murder of Vallombrosan Abbot, Tesoro of Pavia (Inferno XXXII), by Florentines angered at his Ghibelline plotting
1258 to 1266 Florence under Papal Interdict for murder of Abbot Tesoro
1259, 14 October Brunetto Latino as scribe of the Anziani writes the minutes concerning deliberations about repairs to the Rubaconte and Carraia Bridges across the Arno, and to the fish weir at the Rubaconte. ' Et ego Burnectus Latinus notarius nunc Antianorum scriba predicta domini Capitanei et Antianorum mandato publice scripsi. '
1260 Brunetto Latino, che ha scritto alcune pagine del 'Libro di Montaperti', 26 febbraio, 20, 22, 23, 24 luglio, poi inviato come ambasciatore da Firenze all'imperatore Alfonso el Sabio di Spagna; Alfonso a Seviglia 27 luglio, a Còrdoba 20 settembre; dal 9 febbraio al 3 settembre Libro di Montaperti entries; 4 settembre La Battaglia di Montaperti, Carrocchio e Libro di Montaperti presi dai senesi; a una data incerta a il Comune fi Firenze è donato Las Cantigas de Santa Maria con i miracoli della Vergine in uno tabernacolo, attualmente custodite presso la Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze, Banco Rari 20
1263, 15, 24 September Florentine exiles in Arras and Paris promise Pope help against Ghibelling Manfred in Spulia, Vatican Secret Archives
1264, 17 April Florentine bankers raising decima in England for Pope against Manfred, document in Westminster Abbey naming Brunetto Latino. Alfonso writes to Pope requesting his Coronation as Emperor
1266, 25 February Battle of Benevento
1267. December Bishop Garcìa di Silves, carrying Alfonso's second coronation request, was murdered by the Florentine Ghibelline Rinier dei Pazzi on the journey
1265, May Birth of Dante Alighieri, June Charles, Count of Provence and Anjou, made Senator of Rome by Pope and Florentines; Arnolfo di Cambio's statue of Charles of Anjou as Roman Senator in the Capitoline
1266, 6 January Charles of Anjou and his wife Beatrice crowned by Pope in the Vatican, 26 February, Battle of Benevento, Charles and Pope victorious over Manfred
1266, perhaps 1267 Brunetto Latino's return to Florence from exile in Arras
1271-1281 Pope Gregory X
1274 Meeting of Alfonso el Sabio with Gregory X at Beaucaire failed to have Pope recognize Alfonso as the Holy Roman Emperor
c.1270s Tavola referred to in the statutes of the Laudesi di Sant’Agnese, of Santa Maria del Carmine, may be the revered Madonna del Popolo by the Master of St. Agatha
1275 25 July Brunetto secretly in Siena carrying out peace diplomacy
1277 Bibbia ebraica di Toledo, today in Parma (Parma Ms 2668=De Rossi 782)
1278 Compagnia dei laudesi di Sant'Egidio
1280-1291 Ordinamenti for the Laudesi di Sant’Agnese direct the sacristan to set up a small music stand or lectern (leggio) with a little cloth and candles
1282 Easter Monday Sicilian Vespers
1283-1292 Brunetto intensely involved in affairs of the Comune of Florence following Sicilian Vespers
1284, 10 January, Alfonso el Sabio' Will: 'Otrosi mandamos que todos los libros de los Cantares de loor de Sancta Maria sean todos en aquella iglesia do nuestro cuerpo se enterrare, e que los fagan cantar en las fiestas de Sancta Maria. E si aquel que lo nuestro heredare con derecho e por nos quisiere haber estos libros de los Cantares de Sancta Maria, mandamos que faga por ende bien et algo a la iglesia onde los tomare porque los haya con merced e sin pecado'; 4 April Death of Alfonso el Sabio in Seville; 13 ottobre Lega Toscana di Firenze, Genova e Siena (con ser Brunetto Latino come ambasciatore) contro Pisa, Archivio di Stato di Firenze, 'Capitoli di Firenze', Reg. 43, fols. 34-37v, 85-87v
1285 Rucellai Madonna, commissioned from Duccio di Buoninsegna by the Compagnia delle Laudi di Santa Maria Novella; Death of Charles of Anjou and Naples
1285-86 Tesoro manuscript, BNCF Magl. II.VIII.36, with astronomical drawings, letter formulary for the Pope in writing to Alfonso el Sabio, Ruggiero, Archbishop of Pisa, etc.
1287 Brunetto Latino one of twelve Priors of Florence
1288 Pisa tradita da Ugolino e da Firenze, Ugolino con i due figli e i due nipoti gettato in carcere, Dante Alighieri, Inferno XXXII.124-139.XXXIII.1-108; Giovanni Villani, Cronaca, VII.clv: King Robert of Naples imprisoned in Aragon
1289, 18 marzo Ugolino e i suoi scoperti morti di fame in carcere; Compagnia dei laudesi di Sant'Agnese del Carmine
1289, 22 marzo; 1291, 7 dicembre; 1292, 17 luglio, il Comune di Firenze discute sul risarcimento al Conte Guelfo, figlio sopravvissuto di Ugolino da Pisa, per la morte de suoi cari.
1292, 3 luglio I miracoli della Vergina nel tabernacolo cominciano in Orsanmichele, fondazione della sua Compagnia dei laudesi, Guido Cavalcanti scrive un poema su questi miracoli
1297 Aragon arranges King Robert of Anjou's marriage to Violante, the daughter of King Peter of Aragon and Constance of Swabia.
1300 Roman Jubilee
1303 Birth of Birgitta Birgersdottir in Sweden
1304 Orsanmichele distrutta in un incendio, ed è ricostruita; Pian di Mugnone Madonna , ca.1304, which in turn gave place to the image recorded in the Il Biadaiolo Codex, dated about 1335.
1306 Dominican Fra Giordano da Rivalto preached at Santa Maria Novella, that the "authentic portraits of the Magi, of Christ crucified, and of the Virgin, command the highest authority, especially those that were imported from Greece, and carry as much weight as Scripture.”
1310 Deaths of St Umiltà, of natural causes; Marguerite Porete, 1 June, by burning at the stake; c. 1310 Laudario di Santo Spirito (Banco Rari 18), the earliest of the three, probably produced
1310-1325 Dating of drawings, Brunetto Latino, Il Tesoretto, Strozzi 146
1312 Hebrew Bible copied in Soria
1313 At death of Emperor Henry VII, Dante transfers is allegiance to Can Grande della Scala
1314 One of Brunetto's sons ambassador to King Robert of Anjou, another serving at his court
1321-1335 Il Libro di Biadaiuolo
c. 1330s Laudario di Sant’Agnese
1337 Orsanmichele è di nuovo ricostruita
1339 Artists' Confraternity of St Luke, Bernardo Daddi, who painted the Madonna and Child for the Laudesi di Orsanmichele in 1346, one of first four councillors of Confraternity of St Luke, whose primary aim was to promote devotion to the Virgin Mary. Birth of Silvestro dei Gherarducci
c. 1340-50 Laudario di Sant'Egidio (Banco Rari 19), of the Laudesi di Santa Maria e Sant’Egidio of Santa Maria Nuova Hospital
1346 Virgin and Child, Bernardo Daddi - still in situ - commissioned by the Laudesi di Orsanmichele
1348 Monna Biancia, figlia di ser Brunetto Latino, vedova di Guido di Filippo da Castiglionchio, fa testamento lasciando un terzo delle sue richezze alla Compagnia dei laudesi di Orsanmichele
1350 La figlia di Dante, monaca a Ravenna col nome di 'Beatrice', riceve da Boccaccio dieci fiorino d'oro dalla Compagnia dei laudesi di Orsanmichele
1358 Morte di Monna Biancia, Orsanmichele eredita parte del suo patrimonio
1362 Birth of Chiara Gambacorta in Pisa
1367, 23 giugno Un manoscritto del Roman de la Rose venduta dalla Compagnia dei laudesi di Orsanmichele per quattro fiorino d'oro
1371 Chorale 2 of Santa Maria degli Angeli illuminated by Don Silvestro dei Gherarducci
1373 23 July Death of St Brigida; Hermit Bishop Alfonso of Jaén, Birgitta's spiritual director, sent to Catherine of Siena; 8/13 May, Julian of Norwich's Showing
1375 Catherine of Siena's Stigmata in the Church of Santa Cristine, Pisa
1381 Don Simone Camaldolese, che venne da Siena, ma operò a Firenze dal 1375 al 1389 firmò e datò il Corale 39
1382 Pietro Gambacorta obtains the grounds and buildings of a defunct convent, for his widowed daughter Chiara and several other women to install themselves in the convent of San Domenico of Pisa
1385 Papal approval secured in 1385 for San Domenico of Pisa.
1389 Death of Bishop Hermit Alfonso of Jaèn
1390-1424 Don Lorenzo Monaco, monaco a Santa Maria degli Angeli ma che lasciò il monastero per una bottega propria
1391 Canonization of St Birgitta of Sweden, Document written by Cardinal Adam Easton, O.S.B., of Norwich
1394 Priests and Brothers from Vadstena arrive to instruct male postulants who had already gathered. But the idea of having recently consecrated Swedish virgins go to Italy to open a nuns' convent in Florence was not regarded as practicable. Another solution was found: Superior of the St. Clare Convent of S. Maria di Targia at Cortona, Marta dei Casali, accepted the office of first Abbess of the new monastery, so her name could be written into the deed of the first great donation made by the Albertis in December
1395March Marta dei Casali formally appointed abbess of Florence's Brigittine monastery, the Paradiso, by Pope Boniface. Chiara Gambacorta elected Prioress of San Domenico of Pisa. 13 November Lapo Mazzei writes to Francesco Datini, Merchant of Prato, about St Birgitta of Sweden
1396 Don Lorenzo Monaco illuminates Laurentian Library, Chorale 1
1397 Paradiso Document, ASF, giving the canonization bull concerning Saint Birgitta and the Saint Peter in Chains indulgence granted to Vadstena; its scribe is Johannes Johannis of Kalmar in Sweden who became a monk deacon in 1404, who was to travel to Reval in Estonia in 1407 to aid in establishing the monastery there of Mariendal, and to London in England in 1415-1416 to aid in establishing Syon Abbey, and then to Låland in Denmark in 1417 to assist in establishing Maribo
1398 Don Silvestro dei Gherarducci, monaco al Monastero di Santa Maria degli Angeli, becomes its Abbot
1399 Death of Don Silvestro dei Gherarducci
1402-1403 Christine de Pizan writes Le Livre du Chemin de Long Estude, modelled on Dante's Commedia but in French for Charles VI and the Princes of the 'Fleurs de Lys'
1400 Birth of Fra Angelico
1400-1415 Premières traductions françaises de Boccace se diffusent dans les bibliothèques seigneuriales.
1404 Christine de Pizan, La Cité des Dames
1409 Don Lorenzo Monaco illuminates Chorale 3. Laurent de Premierfait translates Giovanni Boccaccio, De casibus virorum illustrium (Des cas des nobles hommes et femmes)
1411 Battle of Agincourt
c. 1413 Margery Kempe visits Julian of Norwich
1416 Amédée VIII of Savoy inherits manuscripts from his uncle Jean, Duc de Berry
1419 Death of Chiara Gambacorta in Pisa
1423Bartolomeo Fruosini (1366-1441), a follower of Lorenzo Monaco, illuminated the Annunciation for the hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence, now in the Bargello Museum, Cod. F72, fol. 14v. In the illumination Bartolomeo Fruosini shows a limited space in bifocal perspective - that is, the floor is seen from above, whereas the ceiling is seen from below. The figures float and undulate sinuously, still a late Gothic characteristic. This Annunciation is datable 1423 because the Chorale Cod. F72 was bound in that year and the Annunciation is copied from an Annunciation by Lorenzo Monaco in the church of Santa Trinità in Florence, which in turn was influenced by the Strozzi Pala by Gentile da Fabriano, now in the Uffizi Museum, which is dated March 1423.
1425 Massaccio, St Peter and the Tribute Money
1429 Christine de Pizan's Ode to Joan of Arc
Late 1420s-1430s Battista di Biagio Sanguigni, the chief illuminator
1455 Death of Fra Angelico (monaco Fra Giovanni da Fiesole)
1430 Giacomo Jaquerio frescoes Abundance Abbey's Cloister
1473 Printing press at Lyons
1482 Hebrew Bible copied in Lisbon in three volumes
1492 Birgitta's Revelationes editio princeps, printed in Lübeck by Ghotan with the assistance of monks and their manuscripts from Vadstena
1519 Translation into English of Catherine of Siena's Dialogo printed by Wynken de Worde as the Orcherd of Syon for London's Brigittine monastery of Syon
1570 Federigo dei conti di Montaguto, governatore di Siena, ormai annessa allo Stato Mediceo, fece dono del Libro di Montaperti a Cosimo I de' Medici
1587-1591 CODEX AMIATINUS in Rome, consulted for first printed edition of the Vulgate Bible
1771 Antonio Magliabecchi acquires Alfonso el Sabio's Las Cantigas de Santa Maria di Alfonso from the Palatine Library
1782 San Salvatore, Monte Amiata, suppressed by the Granduke Leopold of Tuscany
1784 CODEX AMIATINUS brought to Laurentian Library, Florence
1785 Angelo Maria Bandini studies CODEX AMIATINUS
1884 Adolfo Musafia comunicó al marqués de Valmar una síntesis sobre las diversas fuentes de las Cantigas de Santa Maria del re Alfonso X el Sabio
1885 Biblioteca Nazionale acquires Magliabecchi's Library, including Alfonso X el Sabio's Las Cantigas de Santa Maria
1887 Menéndez y Pelayo lo identifica en la Biblioteca Magliabecchiana en carta al Marqués de Valmar como perteneciente a uno de los códices de las Cantigas.
1888 Giovanni Battista De Rossi identifies CODEX AMIATINUS as Anglo-Saxon, not Italian
1904-1905 W.M. Flinders Petrie finds use of alphabet in Sinai, c. 1800-1500 BC
1916 A.H. Gardiner proves Sinai alphabet Semitic
1929 French archeologists discover Ugaritic script in Syria, dated 1400-1200 B.C.
1979 Rosalie Green publishes Herrad's reconstructed Hortus Deliciarum
1999 CODEX AMIATINUS facsimile given to Abbazia di San Salvatore, Monte Amiata